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Filing a Strong Counter Claim in a Civil Case: Lawyers Advice

A civil trial is a lengthy procedure. To avoid multiplicity of proceedings and save the valuable time of the Honourable Court, counter-claim and set-off were adding to the Civil Procedure Code, 1908 by the Amendment Act of 1976. While set-off is considered as a defence mechanism where it is used as a shield, a counter-claim on the other hand is used as a weapon to sue the plaintiff. A counter-claim filed by the defendant is considered as a plaint and the plaintiff in the original suit is entitled to file a reply to the counter-claim in the form of a...

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Filing a Strong Written Submission in a Civil Case: Lawyers Advice

Before approaching the Court, the plaintiff shall send a notice to the defendant asking the defendant to provide the relief he legally owes to the plaintiff. If the defendant does not respond or fulfil the legal obligation provided in the notice, the plaintiff shall proceed to the next step which is filing the plaint. The plaintiff mentions the cause of action and submits it before the Honourable Court which accepts the plaint if it deems fit and then serves summons to the defendant. The defendant shall respond to the plaint with a written statement within thirty days from the date...

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Legal Remedies against False Allegation of White Collar Crime: Lawyers Advice

Meaning and types of White-Collar Crimes: - There are two classes of criminal offences, namely Traditional Offences and Socio-Economic offences or White-Collar Crimes. The former has been in existence since the inception of human civilisation. This mainly includes murder, rape, robbery and dacoity. However, on the other hand, the latter is merely a cause of scientific and technological advancement. Socio-Economic Crimes can simply be termed as the product of the industrial revolution. Socio-Economic crimes or as Sutherland referred it, ‘White Collar Crimes’ are basically those crimes which either affect the health and material welfare of any particular community or the...

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Laws on Cyber or Online Defamation in India: Lawyers Advice

The growth and development of technology has brought substantial changes in the world. With the advent of the internet and social media platforms such as Facebook and Whatsapp, the number of criminals and miscreants in the world has increased. Internet gives the users freedom to publish and disseminate their opinions and thoughts in a much simpler and effective manner. However, this right has been exploited by various Internet users to defame an individual in the name of freedom of speech and expression. The term ‘online defamation’ means publishing of defamatory statement about an individual on Internet which can hurt the...

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How can an Individual file for Insolvency: Lawyers Advice

The Insolvency Laws of India were introduced by the Britishers and like the other laws, it owes its origin to English Law. The insolvency Laws were divided into two statutes on the ground of geographical division. The first is the Presidency Towns Insolvency Act, 1909 which applies to the presidency towns of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras and the second is the Provincial Insolvency Act, 1920 which applies to the entire territory of India except for these presidency towns. Both the Acts deals with the insolvency process of Individuals and firms. According to the 26th Report of the Law Commission of India,...

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Personal Liabilities of a Director as per the Indian Companies Act of 2013

A company is a legal person that appoints directors as its agents to carry its business. Due to its separate legal entity characteristic, the company itself is responsible for liabilities arising from day to day activities being conducted. Personal liability of a director comes into picture when he/she breaches his/her duties while performing fiduciary activities. What do we man by the Fiduciary Duties of a DirectorDefining fiduciary: The term fiduciary revolves around trust. A person acting as a fiduciary puts the opposite party’s interests above his own and acts in good faith with a bona fide intention. Upon suggestions given...

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Laws on Mergers & Acquisitions (M & A) for Foreign Companies: Lawyers Advice

The term ‘mergers’ simply means merging of two entities to form one single entity. (A + B = AB). Whereas an acquisition is one entity completely acquiring the business/management of the other one (target). After the acquisition, the target’s business goes under the complete control of the acquirer. Cross-border Merger and AcquisitionDefining cross-border arrangement: When two businesses registered in two different countries come together to merge or one acquires the other, it is termed as a cross-border merger or acquisition. Here, the Indian company is a company registered under the Companies Act, 2013 and the foreign company is a company...

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Legal Remedies against False Allegation of Cheating: Lawyers Advice

Definition of Cheating and its main Ingredients: Explained: -Under Section 415 of the Indian Penal Code, the word, cheating means deceiving or defrauding someone in order to make him deliver any property to another person, or in other cases consenting that a person shall retain a property. It also involves deliberately inducing someone to do or omit to do some act, which may cause harm or damage to the other person’s body, mind, or reputation. Thus, until the given ingredients are present, an act or omission cannot be said to cheating under the given section:  defrauding...

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Legal Remedies against False Allegation of Corporate Fraud: Lawyers Advice

In S.P Chengalvaraya Naidu v. Jagannath JT, AIR 1994 SC 853, the apex court has observed that “fraud” is basically an act of intentional or deliberate deception with a particular design of getting something through an unfair or undue advantage of another. It has been defined as cheating intended to obtain an advantage of another party. In State of Maharashtra v. Buddhikota Subbarao (Dr.), AIR 1989 SC 2292, “Fraud” has been defined as a faulty representation by one who is aware that the same is not true with the sole intention or deliberation to deceive and mislead the other...

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Legal Remedies available to a Accused in case of Issuance of Proclamation of Proclaimed Offender: Lawyers Advice

Our Constitution does not permit anyone to be damned unprecedented without providing an opportunity to the concerned person. In the case of issuance of proclamation by the court of law, it is important that proper scrutiny of the material facts is undergone for establishing a proper legal procedure. In order to provide proper remedy to an accused having a proclamation issued against him, it is important to establish certain facts and substantial material before the court. Now under Section 81 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, if the court has a reason to believe that anyone against who there is...

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